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(immunodominant decoys). ThisFIGURE eight. CE-specific cytotoxic T cells minimize viral replication. (A) Plot overlays show the granzyme B content material and degranulation activity (CD107a+) on the CE-specific T cells (in blue) upon peptide stimulation. Numbers within the plots indicate the percentage of IFN-g+ T cells. (B) Inhibition of SIV replication (in % of your damaging manage samples) mea
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Respect to the crossing time with the champion island. These two criteria again provide upper and decrease bounds on M=(md). The average time t12 1=(Nmdp12 ) (with p12 from Eq. 1) needed for an island of `1'-mutants to repair the effective mutation `2' has to be smaller than the typical time, te , for an island of `1'mutants to be wiped out by migration in the significant population, which noneth
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found that use oxidative thiol chemistry to regulate their protein activity.This approach is capable of providing a worldwide snapshot with the redox state of protein cysteines during normal and oxidative strain situations within the cell. To detect proteins that have the potential to undergo stress-induced thiol modifications, Leichert and Jakob differentially labeled the thiol groups of thiol-mo
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Is still the most lethal gynecologic malignancy worldwide. Although most ovarian carcinoma cells are initially sensitive to chemotherapy, there is always a small population cells that always survives and initiates new tumors which causes recurrence [31]. The verification of tumor heterogeneity further enhances the hypothesis of CSCs. Compelling evidence has shown that ovarian carcinomas with enric
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Arian CSCs include CD44, epithelial cell adhesion moleculeHuang et al. BMC Cancer (2015) 15:Page 6 ofTable 3 The associations of ALDH1 expression levels in stromal cells and the clinical and pathologic characteristicsALDH1 IHC score in stromal cells 1 (negative) Number Age (years old): 39 40?9 50?9 60?9 70 missing Histological subtype: Serous carcinoma Mucinous carcinoma Endometrioid carcinoma Cle
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Nt years [32]. In their study, dual positive cells of ALDH1 and another traditional ovarian CSC marker CD133 were isolated directly from human tumor to initiate tumor in mice, and these cells displayed enhanced angiogenesis and tumorigenicity like other CSCs [32]. Moreover, the patients with CD133(+)/ALDH1(+) tumor cells displayed reduced PFS and OS [32]. Distinct expression levels and patterns of
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The rise of CSC theory, some specific CSC markers were being discovered to identify putative CSCs, and ALDH1 is becoming to act as a CSC marker in the CSC studies of variable tumor types in vitro and in vivo. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important driver of tumor invasion and metastasis, which may be a feature of CSC. Compared to ALDH1(-) EMT cells, only ALDH1(+) EMT cells had
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Etc. [34, 35]. However, it still remains challenging to identify one single marker or several combined markers to specifically identify all the CSCs in ovarian tumor, and the exact roles of these `stemness' related markers, are still poorly understood due to either a current lack of understanding of the biological functions of the markers, or frequently the lack of information correlating the vari
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